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3 edition of Final technical report on New aspects of heavy cosmic rays from Calcium to Nickel (Z=20 to 28) found in the catalog.

Final technical report on New aspects of heavy cosmic rays from Calcium to Nickel (Z=20 to 28)

Final technical report on New aspects of heavy cosmic rays from Calcium to Nickel (Z=20 to 28)

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Published by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Technical Information Service, distributor in [Washington, DC, Springfield, Va.? .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Cosmic rays.

  • Edition Notes

    Other titlesNew aspects of heavy cosmic rays from Calcium to Nickel (Z=20 to 28)
    StatementR.A. Mewaldt; principal investigator, W.R. Webber; co-investigator.
    SeriesNASA-CR -- 190404., NASA contractor report -- NASA CR-190404.
    ContributionsWebber, W. R.
    The Physical Object
    FormatMicroform
    Pagination1 v.
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL14684241M

    Gamma Ray. High-frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by the nuclei of radioactive atoms. The splitting of the nucleus of a heavy atom, such as uranium, into 2 main parts, accompanied by the release of much energy. What are cosmic rays and where do they originate.   The calcium score is a strong predictor of likelihood of a future heart attack. The equipment used for calcium scoring is the CAT scanner, also known as “CT.” The amount of radiation delivered during most CT calcium score tests is millisieverts up to 8 millisieverts (msvs). A millisievert is a unit of radiation emission.

    Cosmic ray flux on Earth has been monitored since the midth century, and has shown no significant trend over that period. Figure 2: Cosmic Ray Intensity (blue) and Sunspot Number (green) from to (University of New Hampshire) In fact cosmic ray flux has lagged behind the global temperature change since approximately (Krivova. Eugster et al.: Cosmic-ray Exposure Ages of Meteorites or etch holes are termed nuclear tracks. [For a review of this technique see Fleischer et al. ().] The tracks in silicate grains are produced by nuclei from both solar cosmic ray (SCRs) and GCRs. These two sources of tracks can be dis-tinguished from each other. Galactic-cosmic-ray.

    Figure 1: The correlation between solar activity—as mirrored in the 14 C flux, and a climate sensitivity variable, the 18 O/ 16 O isotope ratio from stalagmites in a cave in Oman, on a centennial to millennial time scale. The 14 C is reconstructed from tree rings. It is a proxy of solar activity since a more active sun has a stronger solar wind which reduces the flux of cosmic rays reaching. The temporal, spatial, and quantitative aspects of the calcium signal in smooth muscle, along with microdomains (lipid rafts/caveolae) [8] in the plasma membrane and microdomains in the cell between, for example, SR and plasma membrane, all add to the complexity of understanding calcium signaling in smooth muscle. [9, 10].


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Final technical report on New aspects of heavy cosmic rays from Calcium to Nickel (Z=20 to 28) Download PDF EPUB FB2

Final technical report on "New aspects of heavy cosmic rays from Calcium to Nickel (Z=20 to 28)". FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT t ; i on "New Aspects of Heavy Cosmic Rays from Calcium to Nickel (Z - 20 to 28)" NASA Grant NAG 1 January to 7/31/90 R.

Mewaldt Principal Investigator California Institute of Technology W. Webber - Co-Investigator New Mexico State University (NASA-CR-]90_04) N_W ASPECTS OF HEAVY. New aspects of heavy cosmic rays from calcium to nickel (Z = 20 to 28) and (5) additional evidence that supports the validity of the leaky-box model of cosmic ray propagation in the galaxy.

This final report summarizes these new results, the new tools that were developed to obtain them, and presents a bibliography of talks and publications Author: W. Webber and Richard A. Mewaldt. March 5, Cosmic rays are bad--and they're getting worse.

That's the conclusion of a new paper just published in the research journal Space Weather. The authors, led by Prof. Nathan Schwadron of the University of New Hampshire, show that radiation from deep space is dangerous and intensifying faster than previously expected.

The story begins. MEASUREMENTS of the charge composition of cosmic ray nuclei have led to the belief that cosmic ray calcium nuclei originate in about equal proportions from Cited by: 5.

cosmic rays with the atoms of our atmosphere. At Washing-ton U., Crouch et al. published two papers on the observation of secondary neutrons caused by incoming cosmic ray mesons. (Phys. Rev. 74 97and 76 ) The setup is shown in Fig.

The experiment made use of new develop-ments in fast electronics which allowed one to. Production rates of15N by both solar cosmic rays (SCR) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) have been calculated for moon, as well as meteorites of various sizes.

Our production rates of15N which considered both the reaction channels16O(p, pn)15O and16O(p, 2p)15N separately are about 30% higher than those by Reedy () who considered only the channel16O(p, pn)15O and used an empirical scaling.

2 Cosmic rays where E is the energy-per-nucleon (including rest mass energy), and α (≡ γ +1)= is the differential spectral index of the cosmic ray flux and γ is the integral spectral index.

About 79% of the primary nucleons are free protons and about 70% of the rest are. Despite being “normal” matter, cosmic rays are special because they are accelerated to extraordinarily high energies, traveling very close to the speed of light.

Primarily in the form of high-energy protons and atomic nuclei, cosmic rays constantly bombard the earth, but despite a century-long search, we know very little about their sources. cosmic rays, a concrete wall of 20 m is needed. The SCK-lab in Mol, Belgium, is located underground at a depth of m under sea level.

Measurements performed by the SCK engineers proved that m of clay ground is more than enough to absorb all incoming cosmic rays. When the devices came back out of the laboratory, they were immediately. Cosmic rays are charged particles whose flux observed at Earth shows temporal variations related to space weather phenomena and may be an important tool to study them.

The cosmic ray intensity recorded with ground‐based detectors also shows temporal variations arising from. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was also applied to examine the chemical states of nickel and calcium.

The detailed procedures of XRD and XPS are given elsewhere 2. Quantification of nickel and calcium in chars was made using atomic absorption spectrometry: the combustion residue was dissolved with a HCI-HN03 solution to prepare a sample.

The most common toy model for galactic cosmic rays is called the ”leaky box” model. It assumes that the cosmic rays are confined within the galactic disk, where the mass density is high, but with some gradual leaking out of the disk. This model does a good job in explaining the energy-dependence of the life of cosmic rays (more on this later).

New research suggests these rays are capable of seeding clouds with their radiation bursts, affecting weather conditions and even climate change in the long term. Scientists from the Technical University of Denmark (the Danmarks Tekniske Universitet or DTU) suggest that their experiments show varying radiation from the Sun and other supernovae could lead to variations on our weather - but not.

The contamination level of natural potassium and calcium was reduced as low as possible; the lowest, we obtained, was ppm potassium and ppm calcium. In such sample, the enrichment of 42 Ca, 43 Ca, 44 Ca and 46 Ca due to cosmic-ray products were observed at 70,20 and % respectively.

It was not always possible to reach such low. Cosmic rays are energetic particles coming from outer Earth and any other spatial body, as well as satellites and astronauts in orbit, are exposed to cosmic rays.

The cosmic rays nature is very diverse (the kinetic energy of the particles of cosmic rays is distributed over fourteen orders of magnitude), as well as the origin: the Sun, other stars, novae and supernovae (example of.

Primary Cosmic Rays Flux of stable (> yrs) charged particles and nuclei Primary Cosmic Rays: accelerated at astrophysical sources Protons ~87% He ~12% 1% heavier nuclei: C, O, Fe and other ionized nuclei synthesized in stars 2% electrons γ-rays, neutrinos There may +be primary components of anti-p and e (antimatter in the Universe?) But composition varies with energy (bulk of CR is at 1 GeV).

Cosmogenic effects on chromium isotopes in meteorites Jia Liua, Liping Qina,b,⇑, Jiuxing Xiaa, Richard W. Carlsonc, Ingo Leyad Nicolas Dauphase, Yongsheng Heb aCAS Key Laboratory of Crust – Mantle Materials and Environments and CAS Center for Excellence in Comparative Planetology, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, HefeiChina.

Calcium Score Technical Aspects and Scoring Methods Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) and more recently, multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) have been used in quantification of CAC. Compared to EBCT, recent MDCT scanners have the advantage of higher spatial resolution and less noise, while EBCT has less motion artifacts and lower.

The phenomenological model of condensation interaction between galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and water vapor, which makes it possible to estimate atmospheric pressure variations at different altitudes with changing GCR flux, has been developed.

It has been indicated that pressure should increase at all altitudes in the considered interval (0–5 km above sea level) during Forbush decreases. Thermochemistry of Calcium-Magnesium-Aluminum-Silicate (CMAS) and Components of Advanced Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coating Systems There is increasing interest in the degradation mechanism studies of thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TEBCs) of gas turbines by molten CaO-MgO-Al(exp.

2)O(exp. 3)-SiO(exp. 2) CMAS). CMAS minerals are usually referred as. Calcium-permeable channels control intracellular calcium dynamics in both neuronal and nonneuronal cells to orchestrate sensory functions including pain.

Calcium entering the cell throughout these channels is associated with transduction, transmission, processing, and modulation of pain signals. Clinic, genetic, biochemical, biophysical and pharmacological evidence points toward calcium.The final report was published by Taiwan EPA in Stage 2 (–): each representative survey unit is or 25 ha.

The results showed that approximately ha of rural soils have higher concentrations of heavy metals than the heavy metal regulations announced by the Taiwan EPA in allow (As 60, Cr 16, Cd 10, CuPbHg.